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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 33-36

Correlation between physical activities and agility in healthy Indian young adults: A cross-sectional study


1 Department of Pediatric Physiotherapy, JSS College of Physiotherapy, Mysore, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Musculoskeletal and Sports Physiotherapy, Alva's College of Physiotherapy, Moodibidri, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Exercise and Sports Physiotherapy, School of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission07-Oct-2020
Date of Acceptance02-Mar-2021
Date of Web Publication19-Aug-2021

Correspondence Address:
A Mansoor Rahman
JSS College of Physiotherapy, Mysore - 570 004, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/PJIAP.PJIAP_51_20

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  Abstract 


CONTEXT: Physical activity (PA) is postulated to predict fitness components, especially cardiovascular endurance. But its relationship with agility remains largely unknown.
AIMS: The aim of the study is to find the degree of relationship between PA volume and agility in healthy young adults.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a physiotherapy department of a physiotherapy college in South India.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Sixty young adults were recruited and assessed for PA and agility levels through International PA Questionnaire and Illinois test, respectively, after obtaining the informed consent.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The relation between PA and agility was assessed by Spearman's rank correlation test.
RESULTS: Majority of the participants (53.33%) accumulated moderate PA. The mainstream of the participants (81.67%) showed poor agility. Our findings did not show a significant difference (r = 0.12, P = 0.361) between PA and agility among the young adults.
CONCLUSIONS: PA may not be a crucial determinant for the agility component of fitness in young adults.

Keywords: Agility, physical activity, physical fitness, young adults


How to cite this article:
Rahman A M, Prakash N, Chandrasekaran B, Nizarudheen M, Rashid M. Correlation between physical activities and agility in healthy Indian young adults: A cross-sectional study. Physiother - J Indian Assoc Physiother 2021;15:33-6

How to cite this URL:
Rahman A M, Prakash N, Chandrasekaran B, Nizarudheen M, Rashid M. Correlation between physical activities and agility in healthy Indian young adults: A cross-sectional study. Physiother - J Indian Assoc Physiother [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Dec 3];15:33-6. Available from: https://www.pjiap.org/text.asp?2021/15/1/33/324131




  Introduction Top


The World Health Organization (WHO) (2019) defines physical activity (PA) as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure. PA plays a vital role in the health and well-being of young adults with its attributes to enhance physical, social, emotional, and mental well-being.[1] It requires activation and control of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems to provide the ability to sustain with specific adaptations to increase the body's efficiency and capacity. The magnitude of this sustainability depends largely on the intensity and duration of the PA and the body's initial level of fitness.[2] Young adulthood is a critical period of development, with long-lasting implications for a person's health, and well-being,[3] The WHO recommends about at least 150 min of moderate-intensity PA or at least 75 min of vigorous-intensity PA throughout the week.[4]

Participation in PA can enhance the social development and health-related quality of life by building up self-confidence, social interaction, and integration and ward off sedentary lifestyles in young adults.[5] The strongest associations were reported for high levels of PA, participation in sport, and good cardio-respiratory fitness.[6] On the other side, physical inactivity is identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality.[7] It has a detrimental impact on the physical, social, and mental well-being of the individual.[8]

Fitness includes heterogeneous components such as strength, endurance, balance, flexibility, speed, and agility.[9] Available literature suggests that these fitness components are strongly related to health in young people and are considered as integrated measures of body functions in the performance of daily PA.[10]

Agility is defined as a rapid whole-body movement with change of direction and/or velocity in response to a stimulus.[11] Among several factors analyzed, recent studies have shown that agility performance increases with age and is further improved by repetitions and physical activities.[12] Despite the agility being one of the integrated components in fitness, there is limited, co-ordinated research that examines agility as one of the predictors for PA.[13] Myriad of literature available to demonstrate the physiological effects of PA among young adults[14] and agility among physically active populations and different age groups.[14],[15],[16] However, there is a dearth literature establishing the correlation between PA and agility among the young adult population. If the results found a positive notion toward the relation between PA and agility, the results may empirically improve PA promotion in young adults. The purpose of the present study was to find the degree of relation between PA and agility among young adults.


  Subjects and Methods Top


This cross-sectional study was conducted after the institutional ethical approval was obtained. Sixty participants from a college were recruited for the study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria after obtaining the informed consent. Healthy young adults (18–25 years) were included in this study. Individuals with a neurological disorder, foot instability, recent fractures, orthopedic deformities of the lower extremity, and other medical condition that could affect participation in PA were excluded. A sample size of 46 was obtained using G* Power 3.0.10 software[17] considering an effect size of 0.5, α error probability of 0.05, and power of 0.80.

Measurement of physical activity

The PA level was measured using the International PA Questionnaire (IPAQ). IPAQ was chosen as it has acceptable measurement properties and was used in other studies to measure PA. The IPAQ consists of five generic items used to measure the PA of the individual at their job, transportation, household activities, recreational, and time spent sitting during the last seven days.[12] The data can be obtained either through self-administration or through telephone. According to their results, the PA of the young adults was classified as follows,



Measurement of agility

Agility was measured using the Illinois agility test. Illinois test is used since it is an inexpensive, easily administered, and highly practical tool with good reliability and validity. The flat nonslippery surface was used as a test track with a length measuring about 10 m, and the width is about 5 m marked using a measuring tape. Four cones are used to mark the start, finish, and the two turning points. Another four cones are placed down at the center at an equal distance of 3.3 m apart and the time required to complete the test was assessed.[15]

Subjects should lie on their front (head to the start line) with hands by their shoulders. On the “Go” command, the subjects were outputted from the start line of the test track in the prone position, and with the hands in contact with the ground at the shoulder level, and the time to complete the course was recorded in seconds using a stopwatch. The faster of two trials are used for scoring. [Table 1] shows the rating scores for the test.
Table 1: Illinois agility run ratings(s)

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Statistical analyses

Data analysis was done using R version 3.6.1 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing). For descriptive analyses, the results are presented as means ± standard deviation, frequency, and percentage of both PA and agility. The correlation between PA and agility was determined using Spearman's rank correlation test. The significance level was set at 0.05 for all statistical analyses.


  Results Top


Baseline physical activity and agility levels

Twenty-three (38.33%) subjects presented with low PA, 32 (53.33%) moderate PA, and 5 (8.33%) presented with high PA. Four (6.67%) subjects had good grade of agility, 7 (11.67%) subjects had fair grade of agility, and 49 (81.67%) had a grade of need to improve. The mean time for completing the Illinois test was 23.87533 ± 3.392406 and the mean metabolic equivalent was 1283.808 ± 1159.035. Demographics of the participants recruited are displayed in [Table 2]. [Table 3] illustrates the frequency distribution of PA among healthy young adults.
Table 2: Demographics of the participants

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Table 3: Metabolic equivalent score

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Correlation between physical activity and agility

No correlation (r = 0.12; P = 0.361) was established between PA and agility among the young adults.


  Discussion Top


This study primarily intended to examine the relationship between PA and agility in healthy young adults. Our study did not find any significant relation between PA and agility levels in young adults. Despite there were few studies that demonstrate the impact of agility on PA,[15] an accurate understanding of the relationship between PA and agility is of great importance. The current study explored the cross-sectional correlation between PA and agility in healthy young adults. To our understanding, this is the first study investigating the correlation between PA and agility in healthy Indian young adults.

The study results showed a decreased level of PA and agility among young adults. This might be due to changing diet behavior, lack of exercises, lack of participation in sports activity, lack of gym work out, low competence, and lack of self-esteem. This is in concordant with previous literature.[9],[10]

GarcíaCantó E et al., in their study, found that there was a strong association between PA and agility.[15] Studies reported that the levels of agility has a significant impact on PA and physical fitness moderated by a multifarious variable such as gender, height and wight.[16] Our study demonstrates no correlation (r = 0.12) between PA and agility with P = 0.361. The current study adds important information regarding the association between PA and agility in healthy Indian young adults. This study is in disagreement with previous findings.[15] The reasons for the discordant results in this study may be due to a smaller sample size compared to previous studies, and most of the participants in this study had sedentary lifestyles as per the scores of IPAQ.

However, there are several limitations that need to be acknowledged while interpreting the results. Data were collected using a self-reported questionnaire with no objective measures of PA behavior and hence, a subject could over/underestimate their behavior. Second, the most limitation is that that all the participants included in this study are of normal healthy young adults of age group 18–25 years of age. Hence, each methodological approach has its advantages and disadvantages; findings from this study represent an initial step in this line of inquiry and open important directions for future research, which will build on the current findings through varying age groups in the Indian scenario.


  Conclusion Top


Our study provides novel information regarding the correlation between PA and agility in 18–25-year-old healthy young adults. This study suggests that there is no correlation between PA and agility in healthy young adults.

Acknowledgment

I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Kavitha Raja PT PhD, who assisted us for successful completion of the study and for providing feedback on the manuscript.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Acar H, Eler N. The effect of balance exercises on speed and agility in physical education lessons. Univ J Educ Res 2019;7:74-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Adults WOFY. Young Adults and Public Health Well-Being of Young Adults. Available from: https://www.nap.edu/resource/18869/YAs_Public_Health_Brief.pdf. [Last accessed 2020 Apr 09].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Alberts DS. The agility advantage: A survival guide for complex enterprises and endeavors. In: Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Networks and Information Integration). Washington DC; 2011.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Ates B. Age-related effects of speed and power on agility performance of young soccer players. J Educ Learn 2018;7:93-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Block Martin E. Did we jump on the wrong bandwagon? Problems with inclusion in physical education. Acad Res Libr 1999;15:30-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Brooks G, Fahey T, White T. Physiologic responses and long-term adaptations to exercise. In: Exercise Physiology: Human Bioenergetics and its Applications. 2nd ed. Mountain View (CA): Mayfield Publishing Co; 1996. p. 61-77.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Cunningham JB, McCrum-Gardner E. Power, effect and sample size using GPower: Practical issues for researchers and members of research ethics committees. Evid Based Midwifery 2007;5:132-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Erdfelder E, Faul F, Buchner A. GPOWER: A general power analysis program. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 28, 1–11 (1996). https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03203630.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
García Cantó E, Pérez Soto JJ, Rodríguez García PL, Guillamón AR, LópezMiñarro PÁ, LópezVillalba FJ. The relationship between segmental coordination, agility and PA in adolescents. Motriz 2015;21:200-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Global Recommendations on PA for Health. Available from: https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/physical-activity-recommendations-18-64years.pdf. [Last accessed 2020 Apr 09].  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Gu X, Chang M, Solmon MA. PA, physical fitness, and health-related quality of life in school-aged children. J Teach Phys Educ 2016;35:117-26.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
International PA Questionnaire – Short Form. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?type=supplementary&id=info: doi/10.1371/journal.pone. 0219193.s010. [Last accessedon 2020 Apr 09].  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Noncommunicable Diseases and Their Risk Factors. Available from: https://www.who.int/ncds/prevention/physical-activity/inactivity-global-health-problem/en/. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr11].  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Ortega FB, Ruiz JR, Castillo MJ, Sjöström M. Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: A powerful marker of health. Int J Obes (Lond) 2008;32:1-1.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Rai R, Chugh P, Negi MP. A Study on cardiovascular fitness of sedentary college students. Int J Sci Res 2015;4:109-12.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Usher W, Ünlü H. Agility as a predictor of physical literacy, activity levels and sport involvement. Cogent Educ 2019;6:1-16.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
World Health Organization. Young and Physically Active: A Blueprint for Making PA Appealing to Youth. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/175325/e96697.pdf. [Last accessed2020 Apr 09].  Back to cited text no. 17
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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