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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 4-10

Narrative review on effects of physical training on risk of cardiometabolic diseases

1 School of Physiotherapy, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Agricultural Statistics, College of Agriculture, Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Banarsidas Chandiwala Institute of Physiotherapy, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vishal Mehta
Department of Agricultural Statistics, College of Agriculture, Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/pjiap.pjiap_1_22

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Cardiometabolic diseases as defined by various expert bodies are a varied range of noncommunicable diseases that have slowly creeped in the community by inducing a dreadful combination of central adiposity, reduced insulin sensitivity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia which lead to cardiometabolic diseases, diabetes, renal disorders, and/or metabolic syndrome (MetS). Several authors have brought it to notice that alterations in lifestyle and environment leading to the disruption of circadian rhythm trigger the pathophysiology leading to the development of multiple risk factors and cardiometabolic diseases. Statements very critically state that though MetS cannot be considered as an absolute risk indicator, patients with it are twice at the risk of developing cardiac ailment and at five times the risk of developing insulin-resistant diabetes in the near future. Collaboratively, be it WHO statement of 1999, “the National Cholesterol Education Program ATP3 2005,” or further ratification by “the International Diabetes Federation” 2006, “the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologist” 2003, “European Group for the study of Insulin Resistance,” “the European Society of Cardiology,” and the American College of Cardiology American Heart Association as discussed in this brief review, all are continuously insisting on prevention and conducting awareness programs for the same. The electronic database (PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, etc.,) was searched for available literature on different guidelines for exercise prescription ( Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type [FITT]) in January–April 2021. After reviewing the literature by different authors, a brief review was conceptualized from the same. The different protocols suggested for health and fitness by different guidelines have been presented here with the effect of physical activity discussed with literature support with respect to physiology, prevention, prophylaxis, and treatment. The burden of lifestyle disorders is increasing tremendously and is also increasing the economic cost on society. It is high time that we understand the seriousness and start observing the well-stated advice offered by several guidelines over many years and stay physically active.

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