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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-December 2021
Volume 15 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 55-102

Online since Tuesday, February 15, 2022

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EDITORIAL  

Artificial intelligence in physiotherapy p. 55
Rajeev Aggarwal, Suvarna Shyam Ganvir
DOI:10.4103/pjiap.pjiap_3_22  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Translation of shoulder pain and disability index in Gujarati language and analysis of its psychometric properties in persons with shoulder pain p. 58
Vidhi Paras Bhatt, Nehal Shah, Krishna M Bhrambhatt, Dharti Kapadia
DOI:10.4103/pjiap.pjiap_9_21  
BACKGROUND: Shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) is a joint specific tool that helps to estimate the pain and disability in persons with shoulder pain. It is a self-administered index consisting of 13 items divided into two subscales: pain and disability. The study aims to find inter- and intra-rater reliability and concurrent validity of Gujarati version of SPADI (SPADI-G) in persons with shoulder pain in Gujarati population. SPADI-G can prove to be helpful in objectively defining the pain and disability in persons with shoulder pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prior permission was taken from original author for translation of SPADI into Gujarati language. The translation procedure was carried out according to the guidelines provided by the WHO with forward and backward translation. The psychometric properties were analyzed in 20 persons (mean age of 52.65 ± 7.76) with different shoulder pathologies. Informed oral consent was taken from persons before the study. The validity was obtained by correlating SPADI-G and visual analog scale (VAS). The intrarater reliability was established by test–retest method within a span of 2 days. The questionnaire was again administered after 1 week by two different investigators to test the interrater reliability. RESULTS: The concurrent validity was established with a positive correlation with moderate strength between SPADI-G and VAS (Pearson's coefficient of correlation: r = 0.587, P < 0.01). The intrarater reliability was found between 0.853 and 0.977 (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.943) and interrater reliability was found between 0.914 and 0.983 (ICC = 0. 959). There was a high internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha = 0.967. The Bland–Altman plot analysis was performed for SPADI-G scores in between the two raters, which showed agreement between the two scores within the limits of agreement with 95% confidence interval. The linear regression showed no proportional bias. CONCLUSION: The results show good validity with moderate correlation between VAS and SPADI-G and excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability for SPADI-G in persons with shoulder pain.
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Sway amplitude during foam and dome test in typical young adults p. 63
Preethi H Shivanna Gowda, V Vijay Samuel Raj, Siddarath S Mishra
DOI:10.4103/pjiap.pjiap_28_21  
INTRODUCTION: Balance is one of the most important components for an individual to be in a good state of health condition. The functional balance is most important for the individual to maintain the equilibrium, and the characteristics of the task may increase or decrease the difficulty of the balance component. There is a need to obtain normative sway variabilities (angle, distance, and frequency) in different planes among young adults, which may be used in clinical and sports for balance evaluation and training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Repetitive measure design was used to identify the normative values of foam and dome test on the typical young adults. The sway variabilities of the typical young adults were evaluated through standardized foam and dome test. The anterior-posterior (AP) and mediolateral sway angle and distance were measured using Kinovea software at six phases on a postural grid and results were analyzed using range, mean, and standard deviation. RESULTS: Seventy-six participants, 50 females and 26 males were recruited (mean age 21.5 ± 15 years). The mean sway angle with eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC), with dome, on foam with dome, on foam with EO, on foam with EC in AP plane was 4.15 ± 1.57, 8.09 ± 2.56, 10.47 ± 2.88, 18.42 ± 4.27, 9.15 ± 2.22, and 17.6 ± 5.38,°, respectively. The mean sway results were consistent in similarity with the angle, and frequency. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that the sway amplitude values obtained using foam and dome test showed that the angle, distance, and the number of sways increase with the alteration in the sensory input.
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Effect of home-based structured functional training on functional capacity and quality of life in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: A randomized control trial p. 67
Ekta N Patil, Mariya Prakash Jiandani, Ashish Nabar
DOI:10.4103/pjiap.pjiap_24_21  
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is associated with increased hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an important approach to improve quality of life (QOL); however, postdischarge enrolment becomes difficult for supervised exercise programs because of related barriers of travel resulting in poor long-term adherence and participation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of home-based structured functional training program on the functional capacity and QOL in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction. METHODOLOGY: A prospective blinded randomized clinical trial enrolling 27 patients with HF planned for discharge from hospital. They were randomly allocated using lottery table to either control group (usual care) or interventional group (home-based structured functional training). Both groups received patient education on self-care for HF and Phase I CR as standard of care. Functional capacity using six-minute walk distance (6MWD) and QOL using WHOQOL BREF were evaluated post 6 weeks of intervention. RESULTS: Functional capacity improved by 25.91 ± 12.04 m in control and 70.79 ± 17.69 m in interventional group, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) in 6MWD between the groups following 6 weeks of HBsFT. The pre-post comparison of QOL in both the groups was found to be statistically significant for physical health (P < 0.05) and psychological health domain (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Home-based structured functional training program (HBsFT) improves functional capacity and QOL in HF patients with reduced ejection fraction.
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Sagittal plane gait analysis in children with cerebral palsy spastic diplegia with crouch gait: A retrospective observational study p. 74
Sneha Saravanakumar, Anitha Kumaravelan, R Ravindran
DOI:10.4103/pjiap.pjiap_59_20  
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to understand the pathomechanics of crouch gait by analyzing sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics of gait in children with spastic diplegia. RELEVANCE: This study would be instrumental in planning treatment strategy considering kinematics and kinetics. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six children with cerebral palsy spastic diplegia (Gross motor function classification system [GMFCS] level 2) with crouch had undergone gait analysis during the period January 2015–December 2016, of which 14 children were included in the study after excluding 12 children due to noncompliance of inclusion/exclusion criteria and missing technical data. The mean age of the population was 12.29 ± 1.94 years. METHODOLOGY: This study being a retrospective study, waiver of consent was obtained from the ethics committee. Sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic data of bilateral hip, knee, and ankle were extracted from the gait laboratory. Mean and standard deviation was calculated for cadence, stance, and swing period percentage of the gait cycle of each limb. Graphical representation of mean was done to describe the phases of the gait cycle. A normative gait cycle graph was used as a reference, and deviations were analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Ankle, knee, and hip remained in excessive flexion throughout the gait cycle. Excursion at all joints was reduced, especially at the knee joint throughout the gait cycle. Extension moment and abnormal power generation and absorption were observed at all joints throughout the stance phase to prevent collapse and sustain erect posture. Hence, the functional objectives of limb stability in the sagittal plane were fulfilled. This further helped in accomplishing the task of weight acceptance and single stance in the stance phase. In the swing phase, all joints were in excessive flexion, however, the task of limb advancement was accomplished
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Relationship between shoulder range of motion and neck pain and neck function among college students with mechanical neck pain p. 81
S Priya, S Haripriya, Anamika Arjun
DOI:10.4103/pjiap.pjiap_33_21  
CONTEXT: Mechanical neck pain is the leading cause of disability. The pain can be felt locally in the neck and also in the arms or shoulders. Several studies have found that there is a substantial link between neck pain and upper limb impairment. AIMS: The present study aims to find the correlation between neck pain and neck function and shoulder joint range of motion (ROM) among college students with mechanical neck pain. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 35 college students both male and female in a tertiary hospital, India. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: ROM, neck pain, and neck function were assessed using a universal goniometer, Visual Analog Scale, and Neck Disability Index, respectively. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlation between shoulder ROM and neck pain and neck function. RESULTS: Correlation between shoulder ROM with neck pain and neck function showed a negative correlation, with r = −0.665, r = −0.537, r = −0.282, and r = −0.650, r = −0.639, r = −0.550 (P < 0.05) which is statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The present study concludes that there is a significant relation between shoulder ROM (abduction, internal rotation, and external rotation) with neck pain and neck function.
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Effect of COVID-19 crisis on mental health of physiotherapy students p. 85
Sapna Santosh Tiwari, Suroshree Mitra, Rachana Dabadghav
DOI:10.4103/pjiap.pjiap_7_21  
CONTEXT: COVID-19 outbreak has disrupted the lives of many people. The lockdown imposed from March 2020 in India, a necessary step taken for containment of the coronavirus infection, also had its effect on students' social and academic life. Along with many individuals, the student population has also gone through a range of psychological and emotional reactions due to uncertainty, lack of financial stability, academic delay, lack of physical contact with family members, friends, and constant overloading of information via social media. AIMS: The study was conducted to determine the effects of the COVID-19 crisis on the mental health of physiotherapy students. SETTINGS: Community (online). DESIGN: Survey study-Questionnaire based. SUBJECT AND METHODS: An online survey was conducted via Google forms consisting of demographic data and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)-21 questionnaire (a shorter version of DASS41) having seven questions each subscale, i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress. The data were collected from June 22, 2020, to July 3, 2020. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Descriptive analysis of the data obtained was performed. RESULTS: A total of 275 physiotherapy students participated in the study. About 34.6% of students were found to have depression, 31.1% have anxiety, and 16% have stress in the range of mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe. Majority were in mild category of depression, anxiety, and stress. 4th-year students were found to be more affected as compared to other students. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 crisis has affected the mental health of students.
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Gender differences in pain perception during experimentally induced pain: An observational study p. 89
Anoop Joy, Muhammed Rashid, Ludhiya Baby, Jerin Mathew
DOI:10.4103/pjiap.pjiap_30_21  
BACKGROUND: There are multiple biopsychosocial mechanisms which influence the pain responses between genders. Even though there are enough literature that describe the perception of pain, no consensus has made which gender is more sensitive or tolerance to pain. The study evaluates the difference in pain threshold (PThr), pain tolerance (PTol), and intensity of pain between individuals of both genders and to find which gender is more sensitive to pain. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted on 106 participants (53 males and 53 females) with age 18–25 years. The participants had undergone cold-induced test (CIT) and tourniquet pressure test (TPT). The PThr, PTol, and pain intensity were recorded and the data were analyzed by Mann–Whitney test. RESULTS: The results also found a significant difference in PThr between both genders (P = 0.001). However, males have taken longer time to perceive PThr in both TPT and CIT as compared to females. In the case of PTol, females had a less tolerable level of both TP and CIT as compared to males. CONCLUSION: The differences in the pain perception between genders can vary greatly because of different factors, thus we can say that males have higher PThr and PTol than females.
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Correlation of smartphone usage with functional capacity in young adults p. 93
Dipti B Geete, Aashi Sethiya, Jaimala V Shetye, Mohini N Kamat, Saraswati Iyer
DOI:10.4103/pjiap.pjiap_16_21  
BACKGROUND: Smartphone usage has increased in the young adult population. Excessive usage can negatively affect the various body systems, including pulmonary functions and functional capacity. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to correlate the functional capacity with Smartphone usage. METHODS: Fifty participants were recruited and grouped into exercising and non-exercising individuals. Smartphone usage was assessed by SAPS (Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale Score) and the number of hours of phone usage, which was categorized as being <4hrs and >4hrs of phone usage in a day. Functional capacity was assessed by 6 Minute Walk Test (6 Minute Walk Distance and Recovery Time) and Single Breath Count. RESULTS: Smartphone usage is observed to be of longer duration in young adults, who are at moderate to no risk due to their addiction proneness. SAPS showed a weak inverse relationship with 6MWTD (P=0.053) but no significant correlation with either Recovery Time or SBC. CONCLUSION: This study showed that exercise does contribute to functional capacity, and prolonged smartphone usage will negatively affect functional capacity.
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Correlation between balance performance and perception about the knee in patients with osteoarthritis knee p. 98
Harshita Bhole, Manish Ray, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti
DOI:10.4103/pjiap.pjiap_23_21  
BACKGROUND: Static and dynamic balance impairment is seen in multiple cases of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The affection of body perception has also been observed. Balance and body perception are an integral part while performing daily activities. The affection of these further leads to fear of fall. The aim of this study was to find the relation between balance and knee body perception in primary OA knee patients. METHODS: This was a correlational study. Seventy-three patients with primary knee OA were recruited from tertiary care hospitals. Kellgren–Lawrence Grading system (I-IV) was used to assess the severity of knee OA. Patients having pain on the Visual Analog Scale 6/10 or below were included. The Fremantle Knee Awareness Questionnaire was used to assess a patient's body perception about the osteoarthritic knee. Static balance was assessed using four-stage balance test. Dynamic balance was assessed using the Timed Up and Go test. RESULTS: Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's Correlational test to investigate the correlation between balance performance and knee body perception. The study included 73 patients within 45–80 years (59.4 ± 9.0). An overall strong positive correlation was obtained between balance performance and knee perception (r = 0.76, P = 0.00). Based on the OA grades, this correlation was moderate (r = 0.62, P = 0.00) in mild OA, moderate (r = 0.47, P = 0.05) in moderate OA, and strong (r = 0.71, P = 0.02) in severe OA. CONCLUSION: In knee OA patients, positive correlation exists between balance performance and knee body perception. As the severity of the disease increases, there is more impairment in balance and body perception. This affects the physical performance, quality of life in knee OA patients.
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